Study Information



1. Proposed aim

This study is about cyber-related fraud, which are crimes that involve the use of a computer, internet, electronic device (tablet, phone), or any other computer/internet-related process.

We seek to answer fundamental hypotheses around victimology of cyber-related  fraud – who, where, when, and why? We also seek to explore repeat-victimisation which we believe to be a significant factor with some cyber-related crimes, either by the same or by duplicate/numerous offenders and methods.  We assert that victim insight is fundamental to policy, practice and service delivery, specifically for the police service and other law enforcement agencies, but also potentially for private commerce.  We seek to provide insight on how to support victims of cyber-related crime, and on how to reduce the number of victims of cyber-related crime. Research findings have the potential to affect the frequency of victimhood and of re-victimisation; they will therefore effect the prevalence and the reduction of cyber-related recorded crimes. This will inform education and awareness around victimhood and re-victimisation. The concept of resilience reveals and promotes understanding of the pathway into cyber-related crime for victims and provides a benchmark for future preventative methods and initiatives.

At no point will you be asked to provide the name of the suspect.

2. Detailed methodology

We are going to ask a series of questions relating to yourself and the cyber-related fraud you have experienced. 

We are going to ask around 30-40 questions, depending on your answers, as we designed the survey so there are clear routes through the survey so  you do not answer questions that may not be relevant to you.

We are going to ask several details about yourself (e.g. gender, age, city of residence, first part of your post code), the type of fraud and what were the outcomes (e.g.  amount of money, type of transaction), and details relating to what happened.

You  may also be interested in this survey because you want to talk about a cyber-related fraud experience on behalf of someone else. This survey allows you to do that.

3. A key consideration you will need to make before starting the study.

There is an important key point to raise with you before you participate. We will ask you about your experiences regarding negative events that have occurred in your life. Therefore, there are questions where you may have been a victim of an act that has been made against you. You are asked if would like to describe what occurred, but at no point would you be required to do so. However, you will be asked about how they made you feel. Therefore, the survey does include questions that may ask very personal questions about your private life, and it would be understandable if you found them intrusive, shocking or upsetting. As a result, if you think you might be likely to feel any discomfort or stress because of being asked questions about your experiences, please do not take part in the study.

If you do decide to take part, but then decide to withdraw, you are free to do so. Furthermore, please note that even if you are happy to proceed, if you are a victim of some of the behaviours covered in the questions, that this may raise issues for you.

If then because of these questions, you feel you need to talk to someone there are people you can approach. These include:

a) Action Fraud. The UK national fraud and cyber crime reporting centre. You can report fraud or cyber crime to Action Fraud any time of the day or night using an online fraud reporting tool (  They will be also advised that they can also report and get advice about fraud or cyber crime by calling 0300 123 2040.

b. Contacting Victim Support. or free support line 08 08 16 89 111

At no point will you be identifiable from your answers.). The answers to the question will not be used to make any individual assessments; rather we are only interested in comparing group averages. It is important to remember that if you do decide to take part in the survey, but then decide to withdraw, you should feel no compulsion to continue the survey. All data is anonymised and coded and at no point will we ask for your name.




  1. I understand that my participation is voluntary and that I may withdraw from the research at any time up until 6 months after the completion of the project without giving any reason.
  2. I understand that to do this during the survey I can exit the survey software or use the withdrawal system available in the survey window when completing the survey.  
  3. My data are to be held confidentially by the named researchers.
  4. My consent will be provided by ticking the consent box below.
  5. My data, which will be in electronic form, will be downloaded from the electronic survey system when the data collecting part of the study has been completed. This will become anonymised coded data.
  6. In accordance with the requirements of some scientific journals and organisations, I understand that the anonymised coded data will be kept in electronic form for up to five years. After this time they will be deleted using the University of Leicester's Waste Management Team's procedures for destroying confidential material on digital storage media.
  7. In accordance with the requirements of some scientific journals and organisations, I understand that my coded data may be shared with other competent researchers. I understand that my coded data may also be used in other related studies.
  8. The overall findings may be submitted for publication in a scientific journal, or presented at scientific conferences.
  9. This study will take approximately 6 to 8 months to complete.



By ticking the following box, I am giving my consent for data to be used for the outlined purposes of the present study.

If you would like to receive a summary of the results by e-mail, when this is available, please provide your email address to This will keep your email address separate from your survey responses.

By proceeding I am giving my consent for data to be used for the outlined purposes of the present study Required